Yabancı Dilde Makaleler (foreign language articles)

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Yabancı Dilde Makaleler (foreign language articles)

Mesajgönderen eskimo » 31 Oca 2017 21:05

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Yabancı dilde kaleme aldığınız makalelerinizi burada paylaşabilirsiniz.
**
You can share your articles about religions, philosophy on foreign languages here.
(articles maybe about real islam, quran, only quran, christianity, judaism or philosophy of religion etc.)
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eskimo
 
Mesajlar: 2605
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Re: Yabancı Dilde Makaleler (foreign language articles)

Mesajgönderen Emre_1974tr » 31 Oca 2017 21:08

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Nobody has got ghost according to Quran

Unlike the traditional Islamic doctrine which is under the influence of sects and hadith fabrications, in the real Islamic doctrine of the Quran people have NO ghosts/ souls/ spirits. People do NOT have a divine component, a soul, a spirit nor a ghost.

Everything created in the universe is material, physical and real, NOT an illusion. (for example the first man Adam was made from clay element and the jinn was made from fire element)

Heaven and Hell are NOT mental delusions. They are “physical” places created in another universe.

Unfortunately, terms such as soul- spirit (an immortal divine component, a ghost that can exist on its own without the body even after death) have succeed to enter Islam due to wrong translations -which are made under the influence of hadith fabrications- and Islamic mysticism (sufism). But in the original text of the Quran (Arabic version), they are NOT available.
In the Quran, people have “nafs”, which is the equivalent of “life energy”, “ego”, “character”. People are born, they die and they will be “physically” recreated in the Hereafter:

Does the human being think that We will not gather his bones? Indeed, We were able to make his fingertips (The Resurrection, 75: 3-4)

As also can be seen in the verses, people do NOT have souls/ spirits, they only have “nefs”, which dies together with the bodily functions. And as again can be understood from the verses “most” of the people will be recreated in the Judgment Day. We use the word “most” because there are some exceptions. The Quran gives the examples of very meritorious people, such as martyrs or prophets and on the other edge some deadly sinners, such as the Pharaoh who committed outrage to his people.

These exceptional people have already started to reap what they have sown. They are either rewarded in Heaven (physically) or punished in Hell (physically).

Examples to the righteous who go to Heaven immediately after their death:

· Do not count that those who are killed in the sake of God are dead. No, they are alive at their Lord receiving provisions. Happy with what God has granted them from His favor, and they rejoice for those who have yet to follow them. There is no fear over them nor do they grieve. (The Family of Imran, 3: 169-170)

· A man came running from the farthest part of the city, saying: "O my people, follow the messengers. Follow those who do not ask you for any wage, and are guided. Why should I not serve the One who initiated me, and to Him is your ultimate return? Shall I take gods besides Him? If the Gracious intends any harm for me, their intercession cannot help me in the least, nor can they save me. Then I would be clearly astray. I have acknowledged your Lord, so listen to me! It was said, "Enter Paradise." He said "Oh, how I wish my people only knew of what my Lord has forgiven me, and made me of the honored ones."We did not send down upon his people after him soldiers from the sky; for there was no need to send them down. For all it took was one scream, whereupon they were stilled. (36:20-29)

Example to the disbelievers who committed “deadly” sins and tyranny:

· So God protected him from the evil of what they schemed, while the people of Pharaoh have incurred the worst retribution. The fire, which they will be exposed to morning and evening, and on the day when the moment is established: "Admit the people of Pharaoh into the most severe of the retribution." (The Believer, 40: 45-46)

And the following verses refer to the common/ordinary people, possibly the majority of the disbelievers:

· The horn will be blown, whereupon they will rise from the graves rushing towards their Lord. They will say, "Woe to us. Who has resurrected us from our resting place? This is what the Gracious had promised. The messengers were truthful!" (Ya sin, 36: 51-52)

In the Quran the word “Spirit” only refers to the “Holy Ghost/Spirit” and to the messages It brought. For example:

We gave Moses the book, and after him, We sent the messengers. Later We gave Jesus son of Mary the clear proofs, and We supported Him with the Holy Spirit. Is it that every time a messenger comes to you with what your minds do not desire, you become arrogant? A group of them you deny, and a group of them you kill! (2:87)

Such messengers, We have preferred some to others; some of them talked to God, and He raised some of them in ranks, and We gave Jesus son of Mary the proofs and We supported him with the Holy Spirit. Had God wished, the people after them would not have fought after the proofs had come to them, but they disputed, some of them acknowledged and some of them did not appreciate. Had God wished they would not have fought, but God does whatever He wishes. (2:253)

God said, "O Jesus son of Mary, recall My blessings upon you and your mother that I supported you with the Holy Spirit; you spoke to the people in the cradle and in old age; and I taught you the book and the wisdom, and the Torah, and the Injeel; and you would create from clay the shape of a bird, then blow into it and it becomes a bird by My leave; and you heal the blind and the leper by My leave; and you brought out the dead by My leave. I have restrained the Children of Israel from you, that you came to them with proofs; but those who rejected amongst them said, "This is an obvious magic!" (5:110)

He sends down the angels with the Spirit by His command upon whom He wishes of His servants: "That you shall warn that there is no god but I, so be aware of Me." (16:2)

They ask you concerning the Spirit. Say, "The Spirit is from the command of my Lord, and the knowledge you were given was but very little.” (17:85)
It was sent down with the trusted Spirit. (26:193)

Possessor of the highest ranks, the One with the Throne. He sends the Spirit with His command upon whom He wills from His servants, so that they may warn of the day of Summoning. (40:15)

You will not find any people who acknowledge God and the Last day befriending those who oppose God and His messenger, even if they were their parents, or their children, or their siblings, or their tribe. For these, He decrees trust into their hearts, and supports them with a Spirit from Him, and He admits them into paradises with rivers flowing beneath, wherein they will abide. God is pleased with them, and they are pleased with Him. These are the party of God. Most assuredly, the party of God are the winners. (58:22)

The day when the Spirit and the angels stand in line, none will speak unless the Gracious permits him and he speaks what is true. (78:38)

Some dangers of thinking that people have spirits/ souls:

- Having a belief that people have spirits often leads up to the sanctification of the humans. It leads people to associate himself / herself with God.

- It also contributes to building up a strong belief of spiritual evolution. As a result of this false belief, in order to evolve spiritually, people praise suffering and pain. When they encounter a disastrous situation, instead of getting out of it, they welcome it and take it as a reward. However, according to the Quran, the bad things that come to us are either to test us or a result of our sins, our own malignancy.

- Spiritualists regard life as a school where we, as students, learn and mature. These people maintain that suffering / pain is a must for spiritual evolution. Thus, it turns the evil into hidden heroes having a special (key) role in the spiritual evolution process. Those who can read between the lines can easily realize that it glorifies the evil (even Satan). Also spiritualists
tolerate the immoral behaviors of the ones who are not spiritually evolved (!)

- Belief in the spirits opens the door to reincarnation, which means that we will be different creatures (different gender, different personality, different appearance etc.) in our other lives (!) In other words, it means that a person that dies is gone forever, which is actually a very materialistic point of view again if you read between the lines.

- Some spiritualists think that death is something positive as spirit confined to the physical body will be set free and unite with God and become one. This deviant view also praises suicides.

- People, who believe that people have spirits, mostly swap the belief for the Judgment Day with reincarnation and thus, they reject the belief in reward and punishment in the afterlife and eliminate Heaven and Hell, attributing symbolic meanings to both. In addition, they adopt ascetic lifestyles and scorn the beauties, provisions God gives us (in this world and in the other world).

- People who believe in the spirits are more likely to be cheated by the jinns.

Regards
Emre_1974tr
 
Mesajlar: 366
Kayıt: 30 Haz 2013 12:33

Re: Yabancı Dilde Makaleler (foreign language articles)

Mesajgönderen Emre_1974tr » 31 Oca 2017 21:11

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Emre_1974tr
 
Mesajlar: 366
Kayıt: 30 Haz 2013 12:33

Re: Yabancı Dilde Makaleler (foreign language articles)

Mesajgönderen Emre_1974tr » 31 Oca 2017 21:14

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Thinking about intelligent design

Examples from Quran;

2. The Heifer (Al-Baqarah)

164-164. Behold! in the creation of the heavens and the earth; in the alternation of the night and the day; in the sailing of the ships through the ocean for the profit of mankind; in the rain which Allah Sends down from the skies, and the life which He gives therewith to an earth that is dead; in the beasts of all kinds that He scatters through the earth; in the change of the winds, and the clouds which they trail like their slaves between the sky and the earth;- (Here) indeed are Signs for a people that are wise.


3. The Family Of Ìmrán (Al-Ìmrán)

190. Behold! In the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the alternation of night and day,- there are indeed Signs for men of understanding,-

191. Men who celebrate the praises of Allah, standing, sitting, and lying down on their sides, and contemplate the (wonders of) creation in the heavens and the earth, (with the thought): "Our Lord! Not for naught Hast Thou created (all) this! Glory to Thee! Give us salvation from the Chastisement of the Fire."




45. Bowing the Knee (Al-Játhiya)

4. And in the creation of yourselves and the fact that animals are scattered (through the earth), are Signs for those of assured Faith.



88. The Overwhelming Event (Al-Gáshiya)

17. Do they not look at the Camels, how they are made?-

18. And at the Sky, how it is raised high?-

19. And at the Mountains, how they are fixed firm?-

20. And at the Earth, how it is spread out?




67. The Dominion (Al-Mulk)

3. He Who created the seven heavens one above another: no want of proportion wilt thou see in the Creation of the Most Gracious. So turn thy vision again: seest thou any flaw?

4. Again turn thy vision a second time: (thy) vision will come back to thee dull and discomfited, in a state worn out.



7. The Heights (Al-Aráf)

185. Do they see nothing in the kingdom of the heavens and the earth and all that Allah hath created? (Do they not see) that it may well be that their terms is nigh drawing to an end? In what message after this will they then believe?


25. The Criterion (Al-Furqán)

49. That with it We may give life to a dead land, and slake the thirst of things We have created,- cattle and men in great numbers.



27. The Ants (An-Naml)

86. See they not that We have made the Night for them to rest in and the Day to give them light? Verily in this are Signs for any people that believe!



54. The Moon (Al-Qamar)

49. Verily, all things have We created in proportion and measure.


56. The Inevitable Event (Al-Wáqiá)

57. It is We Who have created you: why will ye not witness the Truth?



95. The Fig (At-Tín)

4. We have indeed created man in the best of moulds,



78. The (Great) News (An-Nabaa)

7. And the mountains as pegs?

8. And created you in pairs,

9. And made your sleep for rest,

10. And made the night as a covering,

11. And made the day as a means of subsistence?

12. And (have We not) built over you the seven firmaments,

13. And placed (therein) a blazing lamp?

14. And do We not send down from the clouds water in abundance,

15. That We may produce therewith corn and vegetables,

16. And gardens of luxurious growth?



29. The Spider (Al-Ànkabüt)

19. See they not how Allah originates creation, then repeats it: truly that is easy for Allah.

20. Say: "Travel through the earth and see how Allah did originate creation; so will Allah produce a later creation: for Allah has power over all things.



21. The Prophets (Al-Anbiyáa)

30. Do not the Unbelievers see that the heavens and the earth were joined together (as one unit of creation), before we clove them asunder? We made from water every living thing. Will they not then believe?



62. And ye certainly know already the first form of creation: why then do ye not take heed?

63. See ye the seed that ye sow in the ground?

64. Is it ye that cause it to grow, or are We the Cause?

65. Were it Our Will, We could make it broken orts, and ye would be left in wonderment,

66. (Saying), "We are indeed left with debts (for nothing):

67. "Indeed we are deprived"

68. See ye the water which ye drink?

69. Do ye bring it down (in rain) from the cloud or do We?

70. Were it Our Will, We could make it saltish (and unpalatable): then why do ye not give thanks?

71. See ye the Fire which ye kindle?

72. Is it ye who grow the tree which feeds the fire, or do We grow it?

73. We have made it a reminder and an article of comfort and convenience for the denizens of deserts.

74. Then glorify the name of thy Lord, the Supreme!

75. Furthermore I swear by the setting of the Stars,-

76. And that is indeed a mighty adjuration if ye but knew,-



30. The Romans (Ar-Rüm)

22. And among His Signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the variations in your languages and your colors: verily in that are Signs for those who know.



39. The Groups (Az-Zumar)

6. He created you (all) from a single person: then created, of like nature, his mate; and He sent down for you eight head of cattle in pairs: He creates you, in the wombs of your mothers, in stages, one after another, in three veils of darkness. Such is Allah, your Lord and Cherisher: to Him belongs (all) dominion. There is no god but He: then how are ye turned away (from your true Lord)?



40. The Believer (Al-Mümin)

57. Assuredly the creation of the heavens and the earth is a greater (matter) than the creation of men: Yet most men know not.


52. The Mount (At-Tür)

35. Were they created of nothing, or were they themselves the creators?



22. The Pilgrimage (Al-Hajj)

5. O mankind! if ye have a doubt about the Resurrection, (consider) that We created you out of dust, then out of sperm, then out of a leech-like clot, then out of a morsel of flesh, partly formed and partly unformed, in order that We may manifest (Our power) to you; and We cause whom We will to rest in the wombs for an appointed term, then do We bring you out as babes, then (foster you) that ye may reach your age of full strength; and some of you are called to die, and some are sent back to the feeblest old age, so that they know nothing after having known (much), and (further), thou seest the earth barren and lifeless, but when We pour down rain on it, it is stirred (to life), it swells, and it puts forth every kind of beautiful growth (in pairs).



10. Jonah (Yünus)

6. Verily, in the alternation of the night and the day, and in all that Allah hath created, in the heavens and the earth, are Signs for those who fear Him.



51. The Winds that Scatter (Az-Záriyát)

49. And of every thing We have created pairs: that ye may reflect.



36. Yá-Sín

38. And the Sun runs unto a resting place: that is the decree of (Him), the Exalted in Might, the All-Knowing.



29. The Spider (Al-Ànkabüt)

43. And such are the Parables We set forth for mankind, but only those understand them who have knowledge.



77. Those Sent Forth (Al-Mursalát)

8. Then when the stars become dim; (dies of stars-like black holes)



24. Light (An-Nür)

43. Seest thou not that Allah makes the clouds move gently, then joins them together, then makes them into a heap? - then wilt thou see rain issue forth from their midst. And He sends down from the sky mountain masses (of clouds) wherein is hail: He strikes therewith whom He pleases and He turns it away from whom He pleases, the vivid flash of its lightning well-nigh blinds the sight.



Yasin

77. Doth not man see that it is We Who created him from sperm? Yet behold! he (stands forth) as an open adversary!

78. And he makes comparisons for Us, and forgets his own (origin and) Creation: he says, "Who can give life to (dry) bones and decomposed ones (at that)?"

79. Say, "He will give them life Who created them for the first time! For He fully knows all!-

80. "The same Who produces for you fire out of the green tree, when behold! ye kindle therewith (your own fires)!

81. "Is not He Who created the heavens and the earth able to create the like thereof?" - Yea, indeed! for He is the Creator Supreme, of skill and knowledge (infinite)!

***


Regards
Emre_1974tr
 
Mesajlar: 366
Kayıt: 30 Haz 2013 12:33

Re: Yabancı Dilde Makaleler (foreign language articles)

Mesajgönderen Biskiel » 01 Şub 2017 13:01

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MORS IMMORTALIS

(The problem of death in Spinoza's philosophy)

by Martin Hemelík

ABSTRACT:

Death and dying - these are very important philosophical problems. Dutch philosopher Baruch Spinoza who ranks among the rationalists of the XVIIth century, solves the problem of death in the framework of his ontological schedule. The author summarizes the basic elements of Spinoza's solution: Death can play the role of evil only for such kind of people which is not able of higher forms of understanding, i.e. only for people who are called "homines carnales" by Spinoza; for people whom Spinoza called "homines sapientes", death cannot play this role. On the contrary, homo sapiens is able to overcome death because he understands himself and the necessity of things and God.


Keywords: Spinoza - death - dying - good - evil - "homo carnalis" - "homo sapiens"
I.

At first sight, the motive of death in Spinoza's philosophy does not seem to be very important and interesting; Spinoza does not deal explicitly with this motive. In his main work "Ethica ordine geometrico demonstrata", the motive of death is only marginal. Why then this theme?

Nevertheless, the reasons for an inquiry of this theme can be found very easily. First of all, Spinoza's philosophy is an ethical doctrine of the right human way to liberty, happiness and bliss (beatitudo). (In Spinoza, liberty, happiness and bliss are three dimensions of the ultimate end of human life.) With respect to this end, death would be considered as a very serious or even insuperable hindrance. In our everyday experience, dying and death are given in a very pressing way and this concerns all living beings and primarily ourselves. Spinoza as a philosopher who examines the human way to liberty, happiness and bliss cannot therefore leave out of these problems.

Moreover, the question of dying and death is also connected very closely with the ethical problem of good and evil. In his Ethica, Spinoza looks into this problem very carefully and this is why I think that in the framework of these considerations it is possible to grasp the basic features of Spinoza's treatment of the question of death.



II.

Max Scheler called Spinoza (as well as G. W. Leibniz) "the philosopher of metaphysical optimism" because - according to Schelerřs opinion - he denied the ontological validity of suffering to such an extent that his philosophy can be held for a metaphysical justification of evil in the world.(1) In my view, this opinion seems to be doubtful. Letřs examine this "justification of evil" in Spinozism.

As early as in his Short Treatise that originated about 1660 Spinoza expresses an unequivocal judgement concerning the above mentioned problem: "Daraus folgt also - wie oben - dass gut und schlecht keine Dinge oder Handlungen sind, die in der Natur sich finden."(2) In Ethica ordine geometrico demonstrata it is formulated in a more explicite way: "With regard to good and evil these terms indicate nothing positive in things considered in themselves, nor are they anything else than modes of thought, or notions which we form from the comparison of one thing with another. For one and the same thing may at the same time be both good and evil or indifferent."(3) In the definitions of Part IV of Ethica there can be found an exact specification of the terms of good and evil: "By good, I understand that which we certainly know is useful to us. By evil, on the contrary, I understand that which we certainly know hinders us from possesing anything that is good."(4)

From Spinozařs point of view, good and evil are not important from the ontological point of view. They have no relevance to the ontological order of all being. Accordingly, their importance can be found only in relation to our human nature. It must be so because the ontological basis for all - God (Deus) - has no such characterizations. God (the Absolute) is neither good nor bad. Inasmuch as all is in God and God is the immanent cause of all, no existing thing is good or bad in itself. Thus, there is no reason for speaking about "justifying of evil" in Schelerian sense. In Spinoza, nobody and nothing is guilty.

However, the problem of the justification of evil can be treated in another way. If Spinoza understands evil as what hinders us from possesing anything that is good, then it is obvious that the very fact of the existence of this hindrance can be understood as evil. Anything (any being) arises necessarily from the essence of God. The fact that something is evil for us, must result somehow from the general order of nature or have its reason and cause in God. In this way, the existence of evil would be based upon the entire ontological schedule of being.

This consideration seems to oscillate between clarity and confusedness. To avoid this confusedness, we should try to understand again Spinoza's approach to human condition. Good and evil cannot be found in things as considered in themselves. Good and evil are constituted in the relations between our nature and these things. Nevertheless, our existence, the existence of things and, consequently, our contacts with things, in which things' goodness and badness are constituted, this all belongs to the general order of nature and has an objective and even the absolute basis. In Spinoza, human evaluation of things as good and bad takes place also in "the empire of necessity". A full understanding of things and their characters (good and evil) is not derived solely from things themselves, but also from our and their position within the general order. For Spinoza, the idea of the justification of evil in the world would be the same as if the triangle were justified by the fact that the sum of its three angles is two right angles. In accordance with Spinoza, this world is not the best world, but it is the only possible world because it is the necessary world. Only in this meaning we can understand the problem of Spinoza's justification of evil in the world. There is no other possibility.

Since good and evil are notions which are constituted in the relations of things to our human nature, we are not able to aim at the elimination of evil. We cannot deny our nature. The general order of nature is incorrigible. We can "humiliate" the evil in such a way that the suffering which results from the existence of evil is compensated for our ability to understand evil and for our actions which are led by this understanding. This is the hard core of Spinozařs ethical doctrine as well as the basic framework of our considerations about the question of the death in Spinozism.



III.

Death and dying - these are the examples of evil in the world. This is a common opinion.(5) Death is often considered as the absolute or supreme evil. Is it the supreme evil also for Spinoza?

Spinoza's doctrine implies a positive answer to this question even though we cannot find it in his work in explicit form. Let's start a reconstruction of this answer in terms of the considerations which are contained in Part III, IV and V of Ethica ordine geometrico demonstrata. We can use the following formulation of Spinoza: "Nothing can be evil through that which it possesses in common with our nature, but in so far as a thing is evil to us is it contrary to us."(6) Our nature (to say nothing of our basic determination which consists in our being a mode of the attribute of extensity as well as a mode of the attribute of thinking) is constituted by "the effort to perservere in its being"(7) and on the other hand "the effort by which we endeavour to achieve the life of wise man" , i.e. the possibility to become the "homo sapiens" really.(8)

Has death anything common with our nature? Of course it has not. Since death is at variance with our nature, it must be evil for us. If death is evil for us, it hinders us from possesing anything that is good. But death belongs to the "general order of nature", i.e. it is necesary. How does Spinoza come to terms with this situation?

In Spinoza's philosophy, it is possible to discern two attempts to this problem, which are connected very closely. The first attempt has led to the fact that Spinoza's philosophy is sometimes characterized as a kind of Stoic ethical doctrine. 67. proposition of Part IV says: " A free man thinks of nothing less than of death, and his wisdom is not a meditation upon death but upon life."(9) The scholion of 39.proposition of Part V says: "Inasmuch as human bodies are fit many things, we cannot doubt the possibility of their possessing such a nature that they may be related to minds which have a large knowledge of themselves and of God and whose greatest or principal part is eternal, so that they scarcely for death."(10)

These ideas are very similar to the ideas of Stoic philosopher Epicurus. Like the Stoic philosopher, Spinoza seems to endeavour at avoiding human anxiety in a similarly simple and clever way: 'If we are here, death is not here and, on the contrary, when death is here, so we are not here.' Such ideas can be found also in other Greek and Roman philosophers.

It is necessary to become aware of the following important circumstance: Spinoza derives the main parts of his ethical doctrine from the theory of "conatu", i.e. from the idea that the human "essentia actualis" is the conscious instinct of self-preservation. Spinoza's refusal of "thinking upon death" and his emphasizing of "thinking upon life" is adequate to the human "essentia actualis". Spinoza does not imitate the Stoic philosophy, he is original.

The essence of man is related first of all to the perservation of existence. It is not "being to death". The need of "thinking upon life" as well as the refusal of "thinking upon death" can be regarded as the evidence of man's ontological constitution.

In the second attempt which can be found in Spinoza's philosophy, the problem of death is treated in another context. Namely, the question of death is always connected with the idea of the immortality of soul. Spinoza says in his Short Treatise: "Dabei haben wir nun bemerkt, dass die Seele entweder mit dem K”rper, dessen Vorstellung sie ist, oder mit Gott, ohne welchen sie weder bestehen noch begriffen werden kann, vereinigt werden mag, woraus man leicht sehen kann,

1. dass, wenn sie mit dem K”rper allein vereinigt ist und dieser vergeht, sie dann auch untergehen muss, denn wenn sie den K”rper, welcher die Grundlage ihrer Liebe ist, entbehrt, muss sie damit auch zunichte gehen;

2. wenn sie aber mit etwas anderem, das unver„nderlich ist und bleibt, sich vereinigt, wird sie dann im Gegenteil auch mit demselben unver„nderlich bleiben mssen. Denn wodurch sollte es m”glich sein, dass sie vernichtet werden k”nnte? Nicht durch sich selbst; denn so wenig als sie aus sich selbst zu sein damals anfangen konnte, als sie noch nicht war, ebensowenig kann sie auch, wenn sie nun ist, sich entweder ver„ndern oder vergehen. So dass dasjenige, welches allein die Ursache ihres Sein, ist, darum auch, wenn dies vergeht, die Ursache ihres Nichtsein sein muss, weil es sich selbst ver„ndert oder vergeht."(11) Similar ideas can be read in Part V of Ethica, 23. proposition: "The human mind cannot be absolutely destroyed with the body, but something of it remains which is eternal."(12) And also 39. proposition: "He who possesses a body fit for many things possesses a mind of which the greatest part is eternal".(13)

What does it mean? Is Spinoza an adherent of the idea of immortal soul? Does he think that only our body is mortal? Let's inquire this difficult problem.

It is necessary to have in mind that in Spinoza, man is the exceptional being whose existence occurs in two connections. Man functions as a whole in relation to other beings and, simultaneously, he is a part of a higher whole, i.e. a part of the Universe. This view is very significant for Spinoza's philosophy.

From this point of view it is not surprising that only man's body is mortal; it should be added that also those modes of mind, which are connected to body (i.e. imaginatio) are mortal. On the contrary, the part of mind called intellect (intellectus or ratio) as well as the one called "scientia intuitiva" are eternal because they are the parts of "the infinite intellect of God".(14) According to Spinoza, the genuine knowledge, i.e. the understanding of the Universe and of the basic ontological schedule is generated just in these parts; this is also the place where the boundary between man and God disappears. Thus, the intellectus and scientia intuitiva are the forms of our participation in the eternal and absolute God-substance. Spinoza uses here the famous concept of the "amor Dei intellectualis", which expresses a kind of the partial identification of man and God. As Spinoza puts it, "hence it follows that God, in so far as He loves Himself, loves man, and consequently that the love of God towards man and the intellectual love of the mind towards God are one and the same thing."(15)

Therefore it is not possible to say that the idea of immortal soul plays an important role in Spinoza. The eternality of the intellectual and intuitive parts of mind consists in the fact that they are able to identify themselves with the intellect of God-substance.



IV.

Let's try to sum up. From Spinoza's point of view, death is only a relative evil, namely in the relation to our nature; it hinders or can hinder the achievement of right life as controlled by our intellect. When does death become this evil?

Death can play the role of evil only for men who lack the higher forms of understanding, i.e. only for men who are called "homines carnales" in Spinoza. Homo carnalis is a sensuous man who is dragged by his passions and (confused) imaginations. He is a passive being and this is why he is not able of really acting (in the sense of Spinoza's term agere). For such a man, death is the absolute evil. Homo carnalis understands neither his own nature nor the necessity of things nor God. Therefore he is afraid of death and is unable to save himself from dealing continuously with the painful idea of death. Instead of living his life in its fulness, he steadily suffers.

For such kind of man, which is called in Spinoza "homo sapiens", death cannot play the role of evil because this man "is scarcely ever moved in his mind, but, being conscious by a certain eternal necessity of himself, of God, and of things, never ceases to be, and always enjoys true peace of soul."(16) He lives the right life, he is controlled by intellect and the main part of his mind is becoming eternal. Homo sapiens is able to overcome death. This is the way in which Spinoza solves the problem of death in his philosophy.
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Re: Yabancı Dilde Makaleler (foreign language articles)

Mesajgönderen Emre_1974tr » 10 Eki 2017 17:32

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Time-timelessness and the Floor of Lord (Indallah)

Our Creator is timeless and placeless as being.. He created the time and the place.


But as manager-observer (from the outside) He is at all the points of the place, and at all time points ...

Past...................................now.........................................................future


We are at "now point" and we are traveling towards the forward, future points.


But our Lord does not travel in time points.

The concepts of the past, the future, the present time, are ours.

There's no travel for him.

Always observe and manage the point.

There's no need for him to go there and travel.

When called "be timeless" to people,they think it's like a way of life that only the wrist watch has stopped working, but the other elements continue to be the same. No, as I described above, the lack of time is a completely different situation that we cannot even imagine. The past, the future, the present moment, there are no separate concepts.

Just as our Lord is without place, He is outside of the universe, He do not travel in our universe but we know, from outside as a manager our Lord, who is also timeless in the same way, is again out of time, but a manager-observer at all time points (from outside).

If we go back to a time machine, and go to the future and the past, we will realize that God also ruled that time period. And the time inside the time machine ...

But let's tell again;

As "Being", God is not in anything and is separate from all creation.

Outside of time and space/place...

We are in time and space. They were already created for us ...

And since our Lord is separate from all creation, it is a great sin to attribute a partner to God, because nothing He has created is a part or reflection of Him.

I would like to bring it from here to the expression "the floor of the Lord" in the Qur'an.

In the Qur'an, I think that Rabbin is used in two meanings.

1- In the eyes of Allah ...

2- It is used in the meaning of the universe of eternity hereafter

In the Qur'an, the word " floor of Lord" is the name of the afterlife universe with different laws of physics than ours. For example, unlike our universe, there is life here, and there is no question of aging, deterioration of the material.

And this time on the "Floor of the Lord" (Indallah) is different according to our time:

- Actually, a day on your floor of the Lord is like a thousand years that you are counting. (Surat al-Hajj, 47)

Because our Lord is timeless, it is used here not in the sense of "in the presence of God" but in the meaning of "the hereafter". In our world a thousand years pass, there is only one day in the floor of Lord.

Surely Allah Almighty has created this space. But the name "Floor of Lord" gave it the name it created this time. It is just a definition like "The servant of Allah", " or "The Messenger of Allah" ...

Surat al-Hajj 47 The one who urgently wants a chastisement: God never contradicts the promise. It is also a fact that a day on the side of the Lord is like a thousand years that you are counting.

Surat al-Bakar 112 The work is not like them, but when they deliver their face to Allah with good behavior, there is a reward on the Lord's side. There is no fear for them; they will not worry ...

Ali Surah 15: Say, "Do you notify me better than this?" For those who are guarded and protected, there will be gardens, rivers flowing under them, and rivers flowing under them, pure wives and a pleasure from Allah. Allah sees His servants in the best form. "

En'am Suresi 127 The peace and well-being of their Lord is their dwelling place. Because of the fact that they are works, He has become their Veli.

Surat al-A'raf 206 Those who are on the side of the Lord do not turn away from Him, They will glorify Him and prostrate Him alone.

Heaven and hell already exist, and some exceptions people have begun to live their punishment or rewards by being created physically there unexpectedly in the Day of Resurrection (knowing that other people will wait for Resurrection and account). For example:

-Think not of those who are slain in Allah.s way as dead. Nay, they live, finding their sustenance in the floor of their Lord;

- Allah is pleased with the blessing he has bestowed upon them, and about the Mujahideen who have not joined them as martyrs behind them: "They have no fear, and they will not hear sadness." are found. (Surat al-Fitr 169-170)

According to these verses;

1- While other dead people are really dead (waiting for the resurrection), the martyrs are alive differently from them.

2- They live in blessings on the floor of the Lord (in the Hereafter)

3. When they speak in heaven, they give good news about the people who are still in the world and / or who have not yet been resurrected after they have been killed (they also say words that they will participate in the Jenny)

However, the point to be noted here is that the people who are now in heaven (in the Rabbinic Floor) are as physical as us, they are materially alive. Already according to the Qur'an, there is no such thing as souls, spiritual life. Everlasting life is also the body. All creatures, including angels and goblins, are already members (for example, if we were created from earth, the jinn were also created from fire). You can also read my article on "Nobody has got ghost according to Quran".

Quran (51:22) And in the heaven is your provision and whatever you are promised.

Quran (57:21) Race one with another for forgiveness from your Lord and a Garden whereof the breadth is as the breadth of the heavens and the earth, which is in store for those who believe in Allah and His messengers. Such is the bounty of Allah, which He bestoweth upon whom He will, and Allah is of infinite bounty.

The width of heaven is called sky and ground. In other words, it is pointed out that heaven/paradise is as big as our universe. This is again the evidence that the eternity dwelling is a universe of its own, with its laws of physics. In other words, the place is not in the size of a garden or city, but in a gigantic dimension as the world we live in with its planets and heavens.

Floor of Lord is the name of a universe that Allah has created from nothing. The eternity is in that house, there are already inhabitants and waiting for the others.

Regards.

MY TURKISH ARTICLE TRANSLATED WITH TRANSLATOR

https://emre1974tr.blogspot.com.tr/2011 ... n-kat.html
Emre_1974tr
 
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Re: Yabancı Dilde Makaleler (foreign language articles)

Mesajgönderen Emre_1974tr » 10 Eki 2017 17:34

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Hereafter Universe (Floor of Lord) and eternal life

The living creatures in the Hereafter universe (Floor of Lord) are immortal and continue their lives forever (in fixed form) without aging. People will begin to live in this afterlife in the next creation from the Day of Judgment, but some exceptions people (like martyrs and prophets) are already living their physical and physical lives in heaven:

-Think not of those who are slain in Allah.s way as dead. Nay, they live, finding their sustenance in the floor of their Lord;

- Allah is pleased with the blessing he has bestowed upon them, and about the Mujahideen who have not joined them as martyrs behind them: "They have no fear, and they will not hear sadness." are found. (Surat al-Fitr 169-170)



Meryem

56. Also mention in the Book the case of Idris: He was a man of truth (and sincerity), (and) a prophet:

57. We raised him in a high/lofty place.


Al-i İmran 55. Behold! Allah said: "O Jesus! I will take thee and raise thee to Myself and clear thee (of the falsehoods) of those who blaspheme; I will make those who follow thee superior to those who reject faith, to the Day of Resurrection: Then shall ye all return unto me, and I will judge between you of the matters wherein ye dispute.



Those who stay outside of this exception will begin their afterlife in the aftermath.

And in the Floor of Lord (ie the hereafter universe with different laws of physics) life is eternal:

Nisa 122. But those who believe and do deeds of righteousness,- we shall soon admit them to gardens, with rivers flowing beneath,-to dwell therein for ever. Allah´s promise is the truth, and whose word can be truer than Allah´s?


Rad 24. "Peace unto you for that ye persevered in patience! Now how excellent is the final home!"



Some people are strangely welcomed by the eternal experience of eternity, and then "are those living things not divine?" They use expressions that indicate their confusion, asking questions.

First of all, we are created, we have a beginning. We are also always on time and space. In contrast, Almighty Allah is timeless and without space.

And we will continue to remain as limited entities at the beginning, and we, the servants who have to travel over time.

If we will return to the Hereafter experience; there will be eternal life forever, but our age will never be eternal. Because our lives have a beginning, and every year our age will increase, will grow constantly, but will always correspond to a number.

1 .......................... 789 ...................... ......... ... 1122333 ........................ 12233499988779 ......

Each passing year my old age will be an addition and will never be infinitely large. However, this event will last forever.

In brief, the eternal life of the hereafter is eternal, but the ages of those who live are limited to a certain extent. But it will be an endless journey back up.

We will see how much progress in the age of a man in heaven, that we are a beginner when we go back. Time (years-age) will increase constantly, but since it is the beginning, it will always correspond to a number.

In the meantime, a mysterious closed-minded, open-ended infinite length is completely wrong in mathematics.

Something must be both inexperienced and eternal so that it can be infinitely long.


If a road ends in the back, then the road is finish.


During the journey to the Acanthus, the figures constantly grow, but never, no matter how long it grows, it does not reach forever.

A B C.......

The point between A and the point reached is always bound to be a certain length.

The life of the Hereafter will last forever, but as I said before, when we rewind, we arrive at the beginning when we travel backwards, and there (backward) the road ends.

In short we will live forever but our age will never be eternal (because our being is the beginning of our existence).

We will be eternal, but we will continue to be limited beings as we are not eternal and we have to travel in time-space.

It is our Lord, who is unlimited, timeless and unmeasured. Moreover, the life of the living beings in the hereafter is a state of fulfillment with the will of our Lord. The Supreme Creator can exist forever without needing anything, but the servants can exist through Him. This is stated in the verses:

Hud

107. They will dwell therein for all the time that the heavens and the earth endure, except as thy Lord willeth: for thy Lord is the (sure) accomplisher of what He planneth.

108. And those who are blessed shall be in the Garden: They will dwell therein for all the time that the heavens and the earth endure, except as thy Lord willeth: a gift without break.

Almighty Allah says that we will be forever for what He wants.

And he says, "If I can not wish reverse, I will never let the others out"

And he promises you will not.

In other words, "I may change this provision if I wish, but I am using an expression that means that the heavenly peoples will stay there forever, because I want it with free will." When we consider all this, we can easily see that our eternal life does not sanctify us, that we will always continue to be servants as in this world.

Greetings and love.

MY TURKISH ARTICLE TRANSLATED WITH TRANSLATOR

https://emre1974tr.blogspot.com.tr/2011 ... yasam.html
Emre_1974tr
 
Mesajlar: 366
Kayıt: 30 Haz 2013 12:33

Re: Yabancı Dilde Makaleler (foreign language articles)

Mesajgönderen Emre_1974tr » 10 Eki 2017 17:39

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THE MIRACLES CONTINUE ... (SECTION 2)

The age of the universe is three times the age of our Earth.

Quran 50:38. We assuredly created the heavens and the earth and all that is between them in six days, and nothing of fatigue touched us.

Quran 41.9 Say, "Do you indeed disbelieve in He who created the earth in two days and attribute to Him equals? That is the Lord of the worlds."

The verses say the universes and our universe have been created in 6 days/stages, and our Earth is in 2 days/phases.

So the age or creation phase of the universe means three times the age of our Earth or the stage of creation.

Today, science also gives a similar knowledge: Our universe is 13.5 billion years old and our Earth is 4.5 billion years old....

In other words, science indicates that the age of our universe is 3 times the age of our Earth(4.5 X 3 = 13.5).

I answer to those who object to me saying, "But this rate is valid only in our day": Our universe / universes are 6 days old, the Earth has 2 days of eviction, the age of the universe is three times the world's age, When the Quran landed.

And science is introducing us with a new miracle to say the same thing.


In the meantime, I would like to share my remarks in the light of the Qur'an about how the universes were created together (in Turkish):

http://emre1974tr.blogspot.com.tr/2016/ ... enler.html

And this link is explained in the verses I mentioned in my study; The fact that stars are shooting light / flames may now be discovered / displayed:

https://www.upi.com/Science_News/2016/1 ... 83632/ph2/

The miracles / evidences of the Qur'an are emerging and appear with ever increasing impression.


Peace and love


MY TURKISH ARTICLE TRANSLATED WITH TRANSLATOR

http://emre1974tr.blogspot.com.tr/2017/ ... evami.html
Emre_1974tr
 
Mesajlar: 366
Kayıt: 30 Haz 2013 12:33

Re: Yabancı Dilde Makaleler (foreign language articles)

Mesajgönderen Emre_1974tr » 05 Ara 2017 03:39

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Time travel to the future in the Quran.


18:9 Did you reckon that the dwellers of the cave and the numerals were of Our wondrous signs?

18:10 When the youths hid in the cave, and they said, "Our Lord, bring us a mercy from Yourself, and prepare for us a right direction in our affair!"

18:11 So We sealed upon their ears in the cave for a number of years.

18:12 Then We roused them to know which of the two groups would be best at calculating the duration of their stay.

18:13 We narrate to you their news with truth. They were youths who acknowledged their Lord, and We increased them in guidance.

18:14 We made firm their hearts when they stood and said, "Our Lord, the Lord of heavens and earth, we will not call besides Him any god. Had We said so then it would be far astray."

18:15 "Here are our people, they have taken gods besides Him, while they do not come with any clear authority. Who then is more wicked than one who invents lies about God?"

18:16 So when you withdraw from them and what they serve besides God, seek refuge in the cave, and your Lord will distribute His mercy upon you and prepare for your problem a solution.

18:17 You see the sun when it rises, visiting their cave from the right, and when it sets, it touches them from the left, while they are in its spacious hallow. That is from God's signs. Whomever God guides is the guided one, and whomever He misguides, you will not find for him any guiding friend.

18:18 You would reckon they are awake while they are asleep. We turn them on the right-side and on the left-side, and their dog has his legs outstretched by the entrance. If you looked upon them you would have run away from them and you would have been filled with fear of them!

18:19 Thus We roused them so they would ask themselves. A speaker from amongst them said, "How long have you stayed?" They said, "We stayed a day or part of a day." He said, "Your Lord is surely aware how long you stayed, so send one of you with these money of yours to the city, and let him see which is the tastiest food, and let him come with a provision of it. Let him be courteous and let no one take notice of you."

18:20 "If they discover you, they will stone you or return you to their creed. Then you will never be successful."

18:21 Thus We let them be discovered so that they would know that God's promise is true and that there is no doubt regarding the moment. They argued amongst themselves regarding them, so they said, "Erect a monument for them!" Their Lord is fully aware of them. Those who managed to win the argument said, "We will construct a temple over them."

18:22 They will say, "Three, the fourth is their dog." They say, "Five, the sixth is their dog," guessing at what they do not know. They say, "Seven, and the eighth is their dog." Say, "My Lord is fully aware of their number, none know them except for a few." So, do not debate in them except with proof, and do not seek information regarding them from anyone.

18:23 Do not say of anything: "I will do this tomorrow;"

18:24 "Except if God wills." Remember your Lord if you forget and say, "Perhaps my Lord will guide me closer than this to the truth."

18:25 They remained in their cave for three hundred years, and increased nine

18:26 Say, "God is fully aware how long they remained, to Him is the unseen of heavens and earth, He sees and hears. They do not have besides Him any ally, nor does He share in His judgment with anyone."
Emre_1974tr
 
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